Studies have shown that better health outcomes are reached with increased trade openness and human development, particularly in lower-income countries. To facilitate international trade and catalyse economic growth, countries should promote robust intellectual property rights (IPR). A strong and effective IPR system will support, protect and stimulate innovation. It will also encourage transfers of technology and increase the availability of products in new markets.
The link between IPR protection and drug affordability is controversial. The price of medicine is strongly influenced by the considerable amounts of money that is invested by pharmaceutical companies into the development of new treatments, the majority of which fail. Generics have an important role to play in adjusting price mechanisms but are sometimes an unreliable substitute. A number of developing countries have argued that IPR can hamper their ability to intervene in public health matters and decrease accessibility, but this paper suggest that steps can be taken to mitigate these concerns.
Despite a moratorium by the Indonesian government rejecting new logging concessions since May 2011, Indonesia saw 840,000 hectares of forests cleared in 2012 and deforestation levels continue to increase at an alarming rate every year. International experiences have shown that chances of sustainable long-term forest management improve when the ownership and management of forest resources remain with local communities.
This paper is an edited version of a keynote speech delivered by the author at the Conference on U.S-Malaysia Commercial Relations in Kuala Lumpur on 26 August 2015, organised by the American Malaysian Chamber of Commerce (AMCHAM) and the US Chamber of Commerce. In the speech, the author explains several myths surrounding traderelated issues in Malaysia today, and he goes on to call the private sector to be more active in engaging the public.
Economies that rely on openness and trade for their prosperity must be based on sound and secure property rights, including intellectual property rights. Increasingly, the basis for sound economic policy is coming under threat from activists who display an anti-market bias.
In 2014, more than 400,000 Indonesians officially left their villages and joined millions of Indonesians who are working in foreign countries. They mostly come from low-income households in rural and remote parts of Indonesia. Through their regular remittances to local bank accounts they support their families and villages at home with more than USD 8 billion per year (2014). The World Bank estimated these remittances have lowered the poverty rate in Indonesia by 26.7% during 2000 – 2007. They are of tremendous importance for inclusive growth and equitable opportunities for the Indonesian countryside
Trade is part of human nature. There are many things and services that people need for survival and convenience that they themselves cannot produce efficiently. Hence, trade between and among people has occurred naturally.
If trade is so basic and important, it should be kept as free as possible, with minimal hindrance and restrictions by politicians and other special interest groups via high tariffs and various non-tariff barriers (NTBs).
For trade between and among people in different countries, or at least within a region to be truly free, trade liberalization should be done unilaterally